Category: medical

4 Mar

Mesothelioma Causes And Prevention

Mesothelioma cancer is a rapidly increasing threat to the people which has already killed thousands of Americans, and it continues to be diagnosed at an alarming rate. One of the main reason for this rapid increase is because of the lack of awareness among people about this peculiar disease.
People often ask how to prevent mesothelioma. Although most Americans are not yet aware of the threat of mesothelioma and other asbestos-caused diseases, the family members and friends of mesothelioma victims are acutely concerned about how to prevent mesothelioma from striking others. This is one of the major reason for me to write this article.

Origin of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is closely related to the term Asbestos, a mineral used in many products that we encounter on a daily basis which is the main cause for this type of cancer. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the use of asbestos was cut back extensively by government regulation. But we must accept the truth that we all use Asbestos on day to day basis in our life. Places like School, Work places and in public building.

Asbestos At Work

If you have (or your loved one has) a job working with asbestos, it’s a good idea to either look for other work or try to ensure that all possible asbestos-related safety precautions are being followed. Some of the jobs that present the highest risk of mesothelioma cancer are:
? Asbestos manufacturing and removal, also known as asbestos abatement
? Insulation manufacturing, installation, and removal
? Factory workers
? Miners
? Construction workers
? Railroad workers
? Ship building and shipyard workers
? Gas mask manufacturers
? Automotive repair (brakes and clutches may contain asbestos)
Asbestos At Home

It’s possible to safely remove asbestos from your home by yourself, older homes may well contain materials with asbestos if you suspect that there is asbestos in your home. Be sure to check the sample of the building material tested in a laboratory. Look in a phone directory under “asbestos removal” for a place to start. The best bet may be to hire a certified asbestos abatement/removal contractor.

Asbestos In Public Buildings

Some theaters, schools, libraries, office buildings and other public buildings that were constructed before the 1980s have asbestos components. Asbestos that is in place and not disturbed is not thought to present a risk of mesothelioma cancer, but if you suspect that any of a building’s components (such as ceiling tiles or plumbing insulation) are becoming friable and dangerous, bring it to the attention of city authorities. Many municipalities have already begun campaigns to rid their aging schools of asbestos.

4 Dec

Don’t Live With The Ignorance Of How To Survive Breast Cancer

Flattening or indentation of the skin over your breast can be a sign of breast cancer. If it is, you shouldn?t worry much as breast cancer is quite treatable. You should make provision on how to receive medical help instead of panicking around.

Once you are diagnosed with breast cancer, the next thing you want to do is start an immediate treatment for the cancer. You should ask your doctor for available treatment options and what is involved in each before taking it up. With proper treatment chances are your breast cancer can be treated. And that’s a very high probability because more and more women are now surviving breast cancer, than was the case in the past.

I know many people say breast cancer is a death sentence. I know lots of people continue to die each and every day from the illness all over the world, but that doesn?t mean you too would die because you have now been diagnosed with breast cancer. What I will tell you is this ? stay open! You just don?t know whether you will die. I don?t care if the doctors have told you that you will die ? STAY OPEN!

Excessive consumption of fat and alcohol can enhance the development of breast cancer. You should watch your food and drinks even though it has not been proven that these two culprits cause cancer, we know it contributes to it.

Cancer can hit you in any part of the body. Breast cancer is simply the type that strikes you in the chest. Some folks think that only women get this, but that is not true; men contract it also. What people should focus on is how to put an end to the disease, starting with detecting it in good time ? before it spreads all over the body and causes much more damage

The degree of the cancer growth in the breast determines how the cancer is treated. Chemotherapy is a method used in treating breast cancer when it has not reached an advance stage. The affected cells are killed by the use of drugs.

A lot of success have been recorded in the treatment of breast cancer. But the attitude of the patient will also contribute to the success of the treatment. The patient has to be strong and show willingness to recover from this deadly disease. The body has a strong healing power that can play important role in healing when the patient also fights the present disease.

The food you eat and your nutrient supply is important when breast cancer risk is measured. If you eat more of food with preservatives and artificial additives, your breast cancer chances will be high. So when you can, stay away from junk foods and eat more of fresh foods.

4 Sep

Oral Cancer Symptoms

Oral cancer as a very common form of cancer characterized by an uncontrollable growth of cells that invade your oral tissues or cavities and can be critical for any person’s life if not diagnosed and treated in early stages. Cancer is defined as an uncontrolled division of the cells and this causes invading of the other neighboring tissues in any region of the body. This condition usually can spread to any other part of the body through lymphatic system or the blood stream. Generally cancers can occur due to abnormal changes referred to as Mutations in the DNA of the cells, or also through genetic variations.

The symptoms of oral cancer can be painless or mimic the appearance of other, non-dangerous oral symptoms. For instance, a cancer lesion can look much like a common canker sore. Because the dangerous tissue changes of oral cancer can look and feel like the benign tissue changes that occur normally, it’s important to have regular dental check-ups. Your dentist can see or feel many changes in your mouth that may not even be noticeable to you. The symptoms for oral cancer are very general which might sometimes turn out to be some other disease but nevertheless it is better to go to a dentist or a general physician or ENT specialist to rule out any possibility. The few visible symptoms are: white or red patch on the lips, inside of the mouth or around mouth which has been there for long , loose teeth, bleeding from mouth, soreness of lips and tongue, swelling in mouth, swelling in throat, ulcer of mouth and lips, a lump or thickening of lips mouth or tongue.

“Tobacco- and betel nut are harsh substances. Whether they are inhaled or chewed, they are unnatural – not food or anything. Because of this, the body fries to defend itself from these substances by forming a protective layer on the affected areas in much the same way that a person with ill-fitting shoes develops calluses. In the course of defending itself by forming thick white patches in the mouth, some body cells go out of control and continue growing. Many patients who have oral cancer are either smokers, heavy drinkers or chew tobacco. However, not all patents partake in these activities. In order to prevent this disease, it is important that you visit your dentist regularly and request an oral exam, especially if you are over the age of 45. It is also important that you stay away from tobacco products and it’s best to refrain from drinking alcohol as well.

Before you go grab another cup of your favorite brewed beverage, bear in mind that this delicious drink also contains more than a thousand chemicals, so no one can say for sure if the caffeine or another as yet unidentified substance is responsible for the protective effect it seems to have on cancers. There are some coffee chemicals, cafestrol and kahweol for example, that are known to have anti-cancer properties.

4 Jun

A Rare Presentation of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Masquerading As Cancer of Cervix

Unusual presentations of cancer are well recognized by oncologists world over and at DHRC we get to see a fair number of them. This 45 years old, Nepalese lady presented to the Gynae Oncology clinic of DHRC with complaints of bleeding per vagina and severe pain in the left lower limb and lumbo-sacral region for the last 6 weeks. She was carrying reports from one of the prestigious medical institutes ofIndia, suggesting an adenocarcinoma of the cervix, FIGO clinical stage IIA. She had the following investigation reports.

1 USG (Abdomen and Pelvis) Cervix replaced by 4-5cms growth with a left adenexal mass and left parametrial thickening in its medial portion.

2 MRI (Abdomen and Pelvis) 4- 5 cms growth of cervix with a left adenexal mass.

3 CA 125 within normal limits (56 u/ml)

4 Guided FNAC of left adenexal mass- inconclusive for cancer.

5 Punch biopsy of cervical growth was reported as an adenocarcinoma.

Since, there was a long waiting period and the lady was having severe bleeding p/v episodes, her son, a medical student inBangladesh, brought her to our hospital for second opinion and further management. On her detailed clinical examination following findings were found –

1 Systemic examination showed a 5 cms X 6cms, irregular, hard lump with restricted mobility and suspicious in nature in the right breast. The left breast had features of fibroadenosis

2 Per speculum, per vaginum and per rectal examination revealed the cervix was replaced by a 4 cms by 5cms growth involving all fornices and upper 1cm of left vagina. A 3 cms hard irregular left adenexal mass was felt in the left fornix.

3 Rest of clinical examination was unremarkable.

Further investigation of the suspicious right breast lump

Since FNAC was reported as inconclusive for cancer and mammography showed highly suspicious findings with Bio-rad III/IV a trucut biopsy of the breast lump was done, this was reported as a metastatic carcinoma to the breast with no expression of estrogen or progesterone receptors (ER/PR negative). Probability of primary in the gastro intestinal tract was considered, PET-CT (whole body) was done, which showed a FDG avid lesions at multiple sites in stomach, ascending colon, left breast, cervix, lower uterus and left adenexa..

When reports were discussed with patient’s relatives, they further reported that the patient’s sister and brother had died of gastric carcinoma in past. They were counseled for genetic study of close family members.

After the final discussion in the Tumor Board at DHRC, with all investigation reports, it was decided that a palliative treatment plan, with haemostatic radiotherapy and palliative chemotherapy should be imparted rather than a Wertheim Hysterectomy as it was thought at provisional diagnosis of clinical stage IIA adenocarcinoma of cervix.


Metastases to the uterine cervix are rare. The commonest primary tumors metastasizing to cervix are primary endometrial carcinoma followed by breast. It is very rare to find a gastric carcinoma metastasizing to the cervix, with rarest of rare situation, where there is a strong suggestion that it has a distinct familial proclivity. Retrograde lymphatic spread is the probable mode of spread to the cervix from the stomach. Metastases to cervix are generally associated with Kruckenberg tumors of the ovaries, as presented in this case.

Cancer of cervix, is commonly a squamous cell carcinoma but recent trends show an increasing incidence of adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix and currently 10-25 percent of primary uterine cervical malignancies .

If Patients with cervical carcinoma on histopathology are reported as adenocarcinomas, one can not over-emphasize the importance of a thorough clinical examination and supportive investigations, to rule out the presence of a primary tumor at a distant site. In the present case, this appraisal included thorough systemic examination, sonography, MRI of the abdomen, pelvis, X-ray chest, mammography, relevant tumor markers, FNAC, trucut biopsy from adenexal mass and breast lump and PET -CT.

The detailed family history of cancer in blood relatives was a pointer in this direction although genetic studies could not be done in this patient. It most likely is a case of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGCs), which represents 1 to 3percent of all gastric cancers. About 53percent of these are associated with CDH1 gene mutation. These familial cancers demonstrate autosomal dominant inheritance and a high penetrance. The 5-year survival is just 20%, if the diagnosis is made after the patient is symptomatic.

Conclusion By careful examination, detailed investigations and planning, the inadvertent surgery could be avoided and correct prognostication was offered in this rare case of a Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer with metastatic adenocarcinoma to the cervix. The importance of metastatic work up and thorough clinical examination and history can not be overemphasized in any cancer patient before definitive treatment planning.