Breast cancer refers to a malignant tumor that has formed from cells in the breast. It usually starts in the cells of the lobules or the ducts. The lobules are milk-producing glands and ducts are passages where milk travels from lobules to nipple. This type of cancer is always caused by genetic abnormality, but only 5-10% of them are inherited from a mother or father. The other 90% of breast cancers are caused by the abnormalities from aging and the process of life in general. While there are several steps to keep your body as healthy as possible, breast cancer cannot be helped or is anyone’s fault. There are treatments for every type and stage of breast cancer. Most patients will have surgery and an additional therapy such as chemotherapy or radiation. In the last few years, there have been so many life-saving treatment advances against breast cancer. Instead of only one or two options, there are now many treatments choices for each individual patient with cancer. 1. Surgery. Most patients will have surgery to remove the cancer. Some of the lymph nodes under the arm are taken out. Breast-conserving surgery removes the cancer but not the breast. This type of surgery includes lumpectomy (removal of the tumor and a small amount of tissue around it) and partial mastectomy (removal of part of the breast that has cancer and some tissue surrounding it). Other types of surgery include: total mastectomy, modified mastectomy and radical mastectomy.2. Radiation therapy. This treatment uses high-energy x-rays or radiation to kill the cancer cells or stop them from growing. The two types of this therapy are external and internal radiation. The way radiation is administered is based on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. 3. Chemotherapy. This treatment uses drugs to stop the cancer cells from growing. This is taken either my mouth or given by injection into a muscle or vein. The way chemotherapy is given is also determined by the type and stage of the cancer. 4. Hormone therapy. This treatment removes hormones or stops their action and stops cancer cells from growing. Hormones are produced by the body’s glands and circulated throughout the blood stream. Some hormones cause certain cancers to grow. There are tests that will show where hormones will attach to drugs or radiation and then drugs are used to stop or slow production.
Nipple symptoms. This symptom is the first sign that most women should see if they feel that there is something wrong with their breasts. The nipples become retracted or indented. This usually points downward instead of the normal facing straight. Women may also notice unusual and frequent discharges from the nipple.
Very often, a young woman gets misdiagnosed. She detects a lump and she is told it is just lumpy breasts and it is followed for a while until doctors realize it’s something serious. Although this can be horrifying, in fact, it’s quite understandable, since the vast majority of lumps in women under 35 are totally benign and the risk of cancer is very low. The fact that cancer is not diagnosed immediately doesn’t mean that the young patient will die; since most breast cancers have been around 8 to 10 years, and whether it is diagnosed the minute you find it or six months later isn’t the critical factor.
After finding the lump and visiting with a surgeon, even though the lump would not aspirate, the breast surgeon had it in her mind, that since I did not fit a statistic, I was to young to get breast cancer, so I should forget about it and go home – if it bothered me to come back in six months, but not to worry. “You’re too young”. I did wait six months and the lump doubled.
Inflammatory breast cancer, although rare, is called “inflammatory” because the breast often looks swollen and red, or “inflamed.” This cancer accounts for 1 to 5 percent of all cancer cases in the United States. It tends to be diagnosed in younger women compared to non-inflammatory breast cancer. It occurs more frequently and at a younger age in African Americans than in Whites.
Breast tenderness is normal and common when young women are going through puberty. Often they ache, causing discomfort. Embarrassment can be felt by what is thought as the “overnight” growth of your breasts. “Honestly, I could swear they weren’t there yesterday!”. Getting used to your breasts developing, having breast tenderness, feeling uncomfortable, finding what bra is right for you, whilst going through possible confidence and self esteem issues, can be a huge ordeal!
Younger Women. Even though mammograms are not recommended for women under the age of 40, the cancer can and does develop in younger women. However, only about 7 percent of all breast cancers develop in women aged 40 and under.
Some people say that bigger breasts have a higher risk of cancer. Wrong again. What about age? Here we have some clear evidence that the age of a women is correlated with the risk of getting breast cancer. The younger you are the lower the risk. Breast cancer in women under twenty is almost non-existent. However, this does not mean that cancer can not develop at all.
Every day in October there is the National Breast Cancer Awareness Day. Millions of women worldwide are suffering from this type of tumor and, unfortunately, will continue to get breast cancer. Being aware of this can save your life. Do not just think about it in October.
Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the developed world. Mostly more than 80% of lung cancers are caused by smoking tobacco or by indirect exposure to tobacco smoke or passive smoking. The other main causes are breathing industrial chemicals such as asbestos, arsenic and polycyclic hydrocarbons or the natural radioactive gas, radon.
Like most cancers, the risk of lung cancer increases with age. It means that the longer you smoke, the greater your risk. The most common age of diagnosis is between 70 and 74 and its very few cases are diagnosed in people under 40.
The fact indicates that, smokers and non smokers get lung cancer. The bad news is there are smokers who don’t get it. Early signs of lung cancer are very essential for them. In Fact, fifty percent of persons who develop cancer of the lungs are previous smokers, and fifteen percent are for non-smokers.
Lung Cancer has many symptoms. Sometimes all of them are associated with other illness that has no connection with lung cancer. You should be aware, since lung cancer is in early stage not shows any symptoms at all. The following are the early signs of lung cancer:
* Shortness of breathAnother regular early sign of lung cancer is briefness of breath which you can only observe with activity.
* Coughs that do not go away coughing are the most common of lung cancer symptoms that experienced by 75% of patients. Hemoptysis or coughing out blood is an ordinary sign of lung tumor, but may be fairly delicate and you can observe only little quantity of blood traced phlegm if you cough. If you suffer continual cough, consult your physician and look for second opinion if you can not get an apparent reply.
* Chest pain or pain in the abdomenAlmost fifty percent of persons with lung cancer suffer some chest pain or aches in the shoulder in time of the findings, particularly aches that increase during breathing and coughing.
* Repeated illnesses like bronchitis and pneumoniaRecurring infections can be because of constant smoking or situation like COPD; however, they may also cause early sign of lung tumor.
* Any unusual signs or common decline in healthApparently dissimilar signs, like knee pain can be a premature sign of lung lung cancer symptoms will shows after 10 years or even more. And when it does, lung cancer stage is already advanced and hard to treat. So should be aware on early signs of lung cancer.
Changing Lifestyles responsible for vast increase in Breast Cancer Cases
Breast cancer, the urban malaise is spreading fast and the doctors say the main reason is lifestyle. In the last 20 years, women have their first child later, don’t breast-feed children for long and are overweight compared to their mothers. Breast cancer, which has genetic component as well, is now mainly lifestyle disease, said experts.
Besides, a study published in Lancet last month showed younger women were dying in larger numbers in developing countries India was no exception, said the study of 187 nations by the Washington University’ Institute of Health Metrics And Evaluation
While the age profile of a breast cancer patient from the West would be 55 to 70 years, the patient could be in the 40-55 age group. However, This is because the developing countries in Asia and Africa have more young than old people. Another study, published in August in the British Journal of Cancer, showed college-educated Mumbai women had a 90% increased risk for being overweight, compared to illiterate women It showed in 30 years, rates of breast cancer among women aged 30-64 rose significantly
A recent Breast Cancer Foundation sample survey of 1,000 women found a worrisome socio – economic trend. Nannies appointed by urban working women are mimicking employers. They leave their children in slums on packaged milk, forgetting breast-feeding. Patients from the lower socio-economic strata were hence increasing.
Late marriages, delayed child-bearing and fewer children, leading to reduced breastfeeding, are behind the increased risk of breast cancer. Sedentary lifestyle, increased consumption of fat and less of fruits and vegetables is one of the main reasons for the increased rates of breast cancer among women in urban India.
Africa and Asian country’s worst statisticis that though the country’s cancer incidence was one-third of the US, death rate due to the disease was almost same. This is because women, whether old or young, come to a specialized Cancer hospital at a very late stage.
Breast cancer arises from cells lining the milk ducts and slowly grows into a lump. A tumour is believed to take about 10 years to become 1 cm in size, starting from a single cell. A malignant tumour has the ability to spread beyond the breast to other parts of the body via the lymphatics or the blood stream
Lifestyle choices or biological characteristics contribute to developing breast cancer
Biological characteristics encoded in DNA are factors that cannot be controlled
Other factors, however, can be controlled to prevent an increased risk for breast cancer
BODY WEIGHT Obese or overweight women are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. A woman who exercises four hours per week reduces her risk of breast cancer. Exercise pumps up the immune system and cuts estrogen levels
Smoking not only increases risk of lung cancer, but breast cancer as well. A recent study indicated there may be a link between breast cancer and cigarette smoking and second-hand cigarette smoke, though the relationship is still under investigation. However, smoking decreases survival rate once you have been diagnosed with breast cancer
The more alcohol you drink, beyond a drink a day, the higher your risk. Studies show that breast cells are exposed to higher levels of estrogen when consuming alcohol, which may trigger them to become cancerous
Eat a low-fat, nutritious diet. Fat triggers the hormone estrogen, that fuels tumour growth. Fill your diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables
FAMILY PRE-DISPOSITION |
If a person has developed breast cancer in the past, or currently has breast cancer, women in the immediate family are at greater risk for breast cancer than those without family history. If you have a grandmother, mother, sister, or daughter who has been diagnosed with breast cancer, this puts you in a higher risk group. See your doctor at any sign of unusual symptoms
The risk increases with age. Most cases are found in women over 40, though the number of younger women developing breast cancer is currently on the rise
Breast cancer is diagnosed more often in white women than Asian or African women. Reason for this is yet to be defined, but women of all races should still be concerned
REPRODUCTIVE AND MENSTRUAL HISTORY |
Women who experienced their first menstrual cycle before age 12, had menopause after age 55, and/or never had children are at increased risk.
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