Author: tamoxifen2016

4 Mar

Mesothelioma Causes And Prevention

Mesothelioma cancer is a rapidly increasing threat to the people which has already killed thousands of Americans, and it continues to be diagnosed at an alarming rate. One of the main reason for this rapid increase is because of the lack of awareness among people about this peculiar disease.
People often ask how to prevent mesothelioma. Although most Americans are not yet aware of the threat of mesothelioma and other asbestos-caused diseases, the family members and friends of mesothelioma victims are acutely concerned about how to prevent mesothelioma from striking others. This is one of the major reason for me to write this article.

Origin of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is closely related to the term Asbestos, a mineral used in many products that we encounter on a daily basis which is the main cause for this type of cancer. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the use of asbestos was cut back extensively by government regulation. But we must accept the truth that we all use Asbestos on day to day basis in our life. Places like School, Work places and in public building.

Asbestos At Work

If you have (or your loved one has) a job working with asbestos, it’s a good idea to either look for other work or try to ensure that all possible asbestos-related safety precautions are being followed. Some of the jobs that present the highest risk of mesothelioma cancer are:
? Asbestos manufacturing and removal, also known as asbestos abatement
? Insulation manufacturing, installation, and removal
? Factory workers
? Miners
? Construction workers
? Railroad workers
? Ship building and shipyard workers
? Gas mask manufacturers
? Automotive repair (brakes and clutches may contain asbestos)
Asbestos At Home

It’s possible to safely remove asbestos from your home by yourself, older homes may well contain materials with asbestos if you suspect that there is asbestos in your home. Be sure to check the sample of the building material tested in a laboratory. Look in a phone directory under “asbestos removal” for a place to start. The best bet may be to hire a certified asbestos abatement/removal contractor.

Asbestos In Public Buildings

Some theaters, schools, libraries, office buildings and other public buildings that were constructed before the 1980s have asbestos components. Asbestos that is in place and not disturbed is not thought to present a risk of mesothelioma cancer, but if you suspect that any of a building’s components (such as ceiling tiles or plumbing insulation) are becoming friable and dangerous, bring it to the attention of city authorities. Many municipalities have already begun campaigns to rid their aging schools of asbestos.

4 Feb

Treatment For Breast Cancer

Breast cancer refers to a malignant tumor that has formed from cells in the breast. It usually starts in the cells of the lobules or the ducts. The lobules are milk-producing glands and ducts are passages where milk travels from lobules to nipple. This type of cancer is always caused by genetic abnormality, but only 5-10% of them are inherited from a mother or father. The other 90% of breast cancers are caused by the abnormalities from aging and the process of life in general. While there are several steps to keep your body as healthy as possible, breast cancer cannot be helped or is anyone’s fault. There are treatments for every type and stage of breast cancer. Most patients will have surgery and an additional therapy such as chemotherapy or radiation. In the last few years, there have been so many life-saving treatment advances against breast cancer. Instead of only one or two options, there are now many treatments choices for each individual patient with cancer. 1. Surgery. Most patients will have surgery to remove the cancer. Some of the lymph nodes under the arm are taken out. Breast-conserving surgery removes the cancer but not the breast. This type of surgery includes lumpectomy (removal of the tumor and a small amount of tissue around it) and partial mastectomy (removal of part of the breast that has cancer and some tissue surrounding it). Other types of surgery include: total mastectomy, modified mastectomy and radical mastectomy.2. Radiation therapy. This treatment uses high-energy x-rays or radiation to kill the cancer cells or stop them from growing. The two types of this therapy are external and internal radiation. The way radiation is administered is based on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. 3. Chemotherapy. This treatment uses drugs to stop the cancer cells from growing. This is taken either my mouth or given by injection into a muscle or vein. The way chemotherapy is given is also determined by the type and stage of the cancer. 4. Hormone therapy. This treatment removes hormones or stops their action and stops cancer cells from growing. Hormones are produced by the body’s glands and circulated throughout the blood stream. Some hormones cause certain cancers to grow. There are tests that will show where hormones will attach to drugs or radiation and then drugs are used to stop or slow production.

4 Jan

A Different Approach To Metastatic Breast Cancer Treatment

There is important information that more than 155,000 women in the United States currently living with metastatic breast cancer and potentially receiving treatment should know.

Metastatic breast cancer is the most advanced stage of breast cancer. Women who are diagnosed with this disease have seen their cancer spread from the breast into other parts of their body. There are various treatment options available today for women with this disease, including chemotherapy, which continues to play a central role in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

However, certain chemotherapy treatments-most notably taxanes, which are one of the most commonly used types of chemotherapy for breast cancer-must be combined with chemical solvents to be delivered into the patient’s body. As a result, it can take a long time (in some cases up to three hours) for a patient to receive her chemotherapy. Additionally, chemical solvents can cause serious side effects such as allergic reactions, low blood pressure, rash and shortness of breath, among others. In turn, this could prevent patients from completing their treatment.

Offering a Different Approach

Science has yielded a different approach to treating metastatic breast cancer with a taxane chemotherapy that is free of solvents. Abraxane? for Injectable Suspension (paclitaxel protein-bound particles for injectable suspension) (albumin bound), the only solvent-free taxane chemotherapy, uses a unique technology to enable the delivery of the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel. This unique technology is based on a human protein called albumin, which is a natural carrier of nutrients throughout the body.

“Women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer may not know that they have options regarding which chemotherapy they receive,” commented Virginia Kaklamani, M.D., DSc, assistant professor Division of Hematology/ Oncology, Northwestern University. “It is important that women with this disease speak with their doctor about their treatment options, which may include solvent-free taxane chemotherapy.”

The U.S. Food & Drug Administration approved Abraxane in January 2005 for the treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within six months of adjuvant chemotherapy. Prior therapy should have included an anthracycline unless clinically contraindicated.

“Abraxane is the only solvent-free taxane chemotherapy approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Abraxane provides an important option for patients with this disease,” added Dr. Kaklamani.

The most serious adverse events associated with Abraxane in the randomized metastatic breast cancer study for which FDA approval was based included neutropenia, anemia, infections, sensory neuropathy, nausea, vomiting, and myalgia/arthralgia. Other common adverse reactions included anemia, asthenia, diarrhea, ocular/visual disturbances, fluid retention, alopecia, hepatic dysfunction, mucositis, and renal dysfunction.

Science has yielded a different approach to treating metastatic breast cancer, with a taxane chemotherapy that is free of chemical solvents.

Important Safety Information & Boxed Warning

You should receive Abraxane for Injectable Suspension (paclitaxel protein-bound particles for injectable suspension) under the care of a doctor who is trained to use cancer drugs. Because you may have side effects from your treatment, you should get this medicine in a clinic or hospital with doctors, nurses and pharmacists who are trained to give cancer drugs.

Abraxane therapy should not be given to patients with metastatic breast cancer who have low white blood cell counts, which may make you more likely to get an infection. Your doctor will schedule frequent blood tests for you in order to check for low blood counts.

Note: Abraxane is paclitaxel made with the human blood protein albumin. This makes it behave differently in the body than regular paclitaxel. DO NOT SUBSTITUTE FOR OR WITH OTHER PACLITAXEL DRUGS.

Important Safety Information

One of the more important side effects associated with chemotherapy is neutropenia, which is a decrease in the number of infection-fighting white blood cells (neutrophils). Normal levels range from approximately 1,500 cells/mm3 to 1,800 cells/mm3 (but vary according to several factors, such as age and race). If levels fall below 500 cells/mm3, your risk of developing an infection increases and treatment may be interrupted. To avoid the risk of serious infection and fever, your doctor will monitor your absolute neutrophil count (ANC) during therapy.

Women should avoid becoming pregnant while being treated with Abraxane. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, if you become pregnant, or you plan to become pregnant while taking Abraxane. Discuss with your doctor how Abraxane may affect fertility. Nursing a baby while taking Abraxane is not recommended because the drug may be present in breast milk.

In the randomized metastatic breast cancer study, the most important adverse events included lower white and red blood cell counts, infections, tingling and numbness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle and joint aches, and mouth sores. Other adverse reactions included weakness, visual disturbances, fluid retention, hair loss, and liver and kidney dysfunction. Low platelet counts, allergic reactions (which in rare cases were severe), cardiovascular reactions, and injection site reactions were uncommon.

Sensory neuropathy (numbness, tingling, or burning in the hands and feet) can occur with Abraxane and other paclitaxel medications. Severe sensory neuropathy can improve with proper management, as prescribed by your doctor. You should tell your nurse or doctor if you experience numbness, tingling, or burning in your hands or feet while taking Abraxane.

Please talk to your doctor or nurse if you have questions regarding the potential side effects of Abraxane therapy.

Abraxane is marketed under a copromotion agreement between Abraxis BioScience, Inc. and AstraZeneca.

Abraxis Oncology is a division of Abraxis BioScience, Inc. All Abraxis BioScience, Inc. corporate names, names of services, and names of products referred to herein are trade names, service marks, and/or trademarks that are owned by or licensed to Abraxis BioScience, its divisions or its affiliates, unless otherwise noted.

4 Dec

Don’t Live With The Ignorance Of How To Survive Breast Cancer

Flattening or indentation of the skin over your breast can be a sign of breast cancer. If it is, you shouldn?t worry much as breast cancer is quite treatable. You should make provision on how to receive medical help instead of panicking around.

Once you are diagnosed with breast cancer, the next thing you want to do is start an immediate treatment for the cancer. You should ask your doctor for available treatment options and what is involved in each before taking it up. With proper treatment chances are your breast cancer can be treated. And that’s a very high probability because more and more women are now surviving breast cancer, than was the case in the past.

I know many people say breast cancer is a death sentence. I know lots of people continue to die each and every day from the illness all over the world, but that doesn?t mean you too would die because you have now been diagnosed with breast cancer. What I will tell you is this ? stay open! You just don?t know whether you will die. I don?t care if the doctors have told you that you will die ? STAY OPEN!

Excessive consumption of fat and alcohol can enhance the development of breast cancer. You should watch your food and drinks even though it has not been proven that these two culprits cause cancer, we know it contributes to it.

Cancer can hit you in any part of the body. Breast cancer is simply the type that strikes you in the chest. Some folks think that only women get this, but that is not true; men contract it also. What people should focus on is how to put an end to the disease, starting with detecting it in good time ? before it spreads all over the body and causes much more damage

The degree of the cancer growth in the breast determines how the cancer is treated. Chemotherapy is a method used in treating breast cancer when it has not reached an advance stage. The affected cells are killed by the use of drugs.

A lot of success have been recorded in the treatment of breast cancer. But the attitude of the patient will also contribute to the success of the treatment. The patient has to be strong and show willingness to recover from this deadly disease. The body has a strong healing power that can play important role in healing when the patient also fights the present disease.

The food you eat and your nutrient supply is important when breast cancer risk is measured. If you eat more of food with preservatives and artificial additives, your breast cancer chances will be high. So when you can, stay away from junk foods and eat more of fresh foods.

4 Nov

Breast Lumps in Young Women

Nipple symptoms. This symptom is the first sign that most women should see if they feel that there is something wrong with their breasts. The nipples become retracted or indented. This usually points downward instead of the normal facing straight. Women may also notice unusual and frequent discharges from the nipple.

Very often, a young woman gets misdiagnosed. She detects a lump and she is told it is just lumpy breasts and it is followed for a while until doctors realize it’s something serious. Although this can be horrifying, in fact, it’s quite understandable, since the vast majority of lumps in women under 35 are totally benign and the risk of cancer is very low. The fact that cancer is not diagnosed immediately doesn’t mean that the young patient will die; since most breast cancers have been around 8 to 10 years, and whether it is diagnosed the minute you find it or six months later isn’t the critical factor.

After finding the lump and visiting with a surgeon, even though the lump would not aspirate, the breast surgeon had it in her mind, that since I did not fit a statistic, I was to young to get breast cancer, so I should forget about it and go home – if it bothered me to come back in six months, but not to worry. “You’re too young”. I did wait six months and the lump doubled.

Inflammatory breast cancer, although rare, is called “inflammatory” because the breast often looks swollen and red, or “inflamed.” This cancer accounts for 1 to 5 percent of all cancer cases in the United States. It tends to be diagnosed in younger women compared to non-inflammatory breast cancer. It occurs more frequently and at a younger age in African Americans than in Whites.

Breast tenderness is normal and common when young women are going through puberty. Often they ache, causing discomfort. Embarrassment can be felt by what is thought as the “overnight” growth of your breasts. “Honestly, I could swear they weren’t there yesterday!”. Getting used to your breasts developing, having breast tenderness, feeling uncomfortable, finding what bra is right for you, whilst going through possible confidence and self esteem issues, can be a huge ordeal!

Younger Women. Even though mammograms are not recommended for women under the age of 40, the cancer can and does develop in younger women. However, only about 7 percent of all breast cancers develop in women aged 40 and under.

Some people say that bigger breasts have a higher risk of cancer. Wrong again. What about age? Here we have some clear evidence that the age of a women is correlated with the risk of getting breast cancer. The younger you are the lower the risk. Breast cancer in women under twenty is almost non-existent. However, this does not mean that cancer can not develop at all.

Every day in October there is the National Breast Cancer Awareness Day. Millions of women worldwide are suffering from this type of tumor and, unfortunately, will continue to get breast cancer. Being aware of this can save your life. Do not just think about it in October.

4 Oct

4 Powerful Foods That Fight Cancer

Cancer is 1 of the most dangerous diseases around. It is estimated that around a third of the UK population will suffer from this disease at some point in their lives. The good news is that there are a number of cancer fighting foods you can incorporate into your diet right now. In this article I will be looking at 4 of these in greater detail.


Apples are a popular fruit that many people eat daily as a health boosting snack. If you are not currently eating them, make sure you pick up a bag next time you do your grocery shopping. They contain a long list of cancer fighting nutrients which include dietary fibre, vitamin C and the phytonutrients caffeic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, cyanidin, kaempferol and rutin.


Chilli peppers are potent cancer fighting foods that can be used to spice up your favourite dish. They are a brilliant source of dietary fibre and vitamin C and also an exclusive source of the anti cancer phytonutrient capsaicin. If you find regular chilli peppers too spicy, give the milder peppers (such as coronado peppers and pimento peppers) a try. These less spicy options can still keep you safe from this harmful disease.


Green tea’s anti cancer effects are well publicised. The main reason this health boosting drink is so effective at preventing this disease is because it contains lots of flavan-3-ols. Green tea is 1 of the easiest foods on this list to add to your diet. Simply drink a few cups throughout the day and you are sorted. The taste does take a bit of getting used to but the benefits are definitely worth it.


Soybeans are extremely powerful cancer fighting foods. They contain high levels of dietary fibre but their most important ingredient is isoflavones. Isoflavones are a group of phytonutrients that are highly protective against cancer. It has been suggested that these phytonutrients are 1 of the main reasons for the lower rates of cancer in Japan (a country where soybean consumption is very high). Soybeans can now be purchased from most supermarkets so including them in your diet is not difficult. Simply mix them in with the other vegetables in your diet and you are good to go.


Eating the right foods can significantly lower your cancer risk. So make sure you fill up on the fruits, vegetables and teas listed in this article. Consuming these cancer fighting foods will boost your overall health and minimise your chances of contracting this nasty disease.

4 Sep

Oral Cancer Symptoms

Oral cancer as a very common form of cancer characterized by an uncontrollable growth of cells that invade your oral tissues or cavities and can be critical for any person’s life if not diagnosed and treated in early stages. Cancer is defined as an uncontrolled division of the cells and this causes invading of the other neighboring tissues in any region of the body. This condition usually can spread to any other part of the body through lymphatic system or the blood stream. Generally cancers can occur due to abnormal changes referred to as Mutations in the DNA of the cells, or also through genetic variations.

The symptoms of oral cancer can be painless or mimic the appearance of other, non-dangerous oral symptoms. For instance, a cancer lesion can look much like a common canker sore. Because the dangerous tissue changes of oral cancer can look and feel like the benign tissue changes that occur normally, it’s important to have regular dental check-ups. Your dentist can see or feel many changes in your mouth that may not even be noticeable to you. The symptoms for oral cancer are very general which might sometimes turn out to be some other disease but nevertheless it is better to go to a dentist or a general physician or ENT specialist to rule out any possibility. The few visible symptoms are: white or red patch on the lips, inside of the mouth or around mouth which has been there for long , loose teeth, bleeding from mouth, soreness of lips and tongue, swelling in mouth, swelling in throat, ulcer of mouth and lips, a lump or thickening of lips mouth or tongue.

“Tobacco- and betel nut are harsh substances. Whether they are inhaled or chewed, they are unnatural – not food or anything. Because of this, the body fries to defend itself from these substances by forming a protective layer on the affected areas in much the same way that a person with ill-fitting shoes develops calluses. In the course of defending itself by forming thick white patches in the mouth, some body cells go out of control and continue growing. Many patients who have oral cancer are either smokers, heavy drinkers or chew tobacco. However, not all patents partake in these activities. In order to prevent this disease, it is important that you visit your dentist regularly and request an oral exam, especially if you are over the age of 45. It is also important that you stay away from tobacco products and it’s best to refrain from drinking alcohol as well.

Before you go grab another cup of your favorite brewed beverage, bear in mind that this delicious drink also contains more than a thousand chemicals, so no one can say for sure if the caffeine or another as yet unidentified substance is responsible for the protective effect it seems to have on cancers. There are some coffee chemicals, cafestrol and kahweol for example, that are known to have anti-cancer properties.

4 Aug

Early Signs of Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the developed world. Mostly more than 80% of lung cancers are caused by smoking tobacco or by indirect exposure to tobacco smoke or passive smoking. The other main causes are breathing industrial chemicals such as asbestos, arsenic and polycyclic hydrocarbons or the natural radioactive gas, radon.

Like most cancers, the risk of lung cancer increases with age. It means that the longer you smoke, the greater your risk. The most common age of diagnosis is between 70 and 74 and its very few cases are diagnosed in people under 40.

The fact indicates that, smokers and non smokers get lung cancer. The bad news is there are smokers who don’t get it. Early signs of lung cancer are very essential for them. In Fact, fifty percent of persons who develop cancer of the lungs are previous smokers, and fifteen percent are for non-smokers.

Lung Cancer has many symptoms. Sometimes all of them are associated with other illness that has no connection with lung cancer. You should be aware, since lung cancer is in early stage not shows any symptoms at all. The following are the early signs of lung cancer:

* Shortness of breathAnother regular early sign of lung cancer is briefness of breath which you can only observe with activity.

* Coughs that do not go away coughing are the most common of lung cancer symptoms that experienced by 75% of patients. Hemoptysis or coughing out blood is an ordinary sign of lung tumor, but may be fairly delicate and you can observe only little quantity of blood traced phlegm if you cough. If you suffer continual cough, consult your physician and look for second opinion if you can not get an apparent reply.

* Chest pain or pain in the abdomenAlmost fifty percent of persons with lung cancer suffer some chest pain or aches in the shoulder in time of the findings, particularly aches that increase during breathing and coughing.

* Repeated illnesses like bronchitis and pneumoniaRecurring infections can be because of constant smoking or situation like COPD; however, they may also cause early sign of lung tumor.

* Any unusual signs or common decline in healthApparently dissimilar signs, like knee pain can be a premature sign of lung lung cancer symptoms will shows after 10 years or even more. And when it does, lung cancer stage is already advanced and hard to treat. So should be aware on early signs of lung cancer.

4 Jul

Important Things to Must Know About Breast Cancer

Breast cancer usually begins with the formation of a small, confined tumor. Some tumors are benign, meaning they do not invade other tissues, and others are malignant, or cancerous. Malignant tumors have the potential to metastasize, or spread. Once such a tumor reaches a certain size, it is likely to shed cells that spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. Different types of breast cancer grow and spread at different rates, some take years to spread beyond the breast, while others move quickly. Men can get breast cancer, but their number is less than half percent of all cases. Among women, breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths – behind lung cancer. Statistics show that one in eight women, who could reach 85 years, develop the disease at a certain point in life. Two thirds of women with breast cancer are over 50 years, and that the remaining, most are between 39 and 49 years old.

Breast cancer is treatable

Fortunately, breast cancer is very treatable if detected early. Localized tumors can usually be successfully treated before the cancer spreads, and in 9 of 10 cases, the woman will live at least another five years. Experts usually consider that a duration of 5 years survival is a cure.

Once the cancer begins to spread, getting rid of it completely is more difficult, although treatment can often control the disease for years. Improved screening procedures and treatment best options make that for more than seven in ten women suffering from breast cancer to survive minimum five years after initial diagnosis, and half will survive more than 10 years.

Tips to avoid breast cancer

??? Quit smoking. Gynecologists believe that active smoking increases the risk of cancer by 30%, especially if smokers started before age 20 and smokes at least 20 cigarettes per day. It is believed that nicotine promotes breast tumor growth and metastasis installation.

??? The first pregnancy before 30 years. An early pregnancy greatly increases the level of estriol, a hormone that reduces by 50 to 70% the risk of breast cancer.

??? Skip the saturated fat. Biscuits, pizza, pastries are full of saturated fat which has been found to increase the risk of breast cancer. The risk of breast cancer in women was almost twice in those with the blood levels were high in saturated fatty acids. Therefore, we recommend limiting intake of saturated fat (animal fats: butter, pork fat, lard, etc.).

??? Alcohol stimulates estrogen production. Excess alcohol stimulates the overproduction of estrogen (female hormones) that favors uncontrolled proliferation of breast cells, the mechanism underlying breast cancer. On the other hand, once ingested, alcohol can be turned into acetaldehyde, a substance known to be carcinogenic.

??? Attention to deodorants. Aluminum and parabens are two chemicals present in most deodorants, which can disrupt the hormonal function.

Adjuvant treatment for breast cancer using Calivita natural products

– Shark Aid supplement, based on shark cartilage extract, is beneficial in inhibiting of malignant and benign tumors. Has a significant effect in preventing cancer.

– In addition to many other health benefits, Noni extract (Noni Caps) has anticancer and immunostimulating effect. It can be used with positive effects as an adjuvant treatment in various cancers and tumors.

– Omega 3 fatty acids from fish oil have many health benefits, from reducing cholesterol, cardiovascular problems and attention disorders, to cancer, because of the property to reduce the risk of malignant cells.

– It has been proven in numerous studies that primrose oil (Evening Primrose Oil) may be beneficial for pain and injuries associated with the menstrual cycle, has a positive role in thyroid gland good function and improves immune function.

– Alkaline ionized water, improved with oxygen, obtained with Aquarion filter, has antioxidant properties and prevents the formation of cancer and many other diseases as alkaline environment is not conducive to their development. It also strengthens the immune system, removes toxins accumulated over time, ensures proper hydration and contributes to the overall recovery of the body.

4 Jun

A Rare Presentation of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Masquerading As Cancer of Cervix

Unusual presentations of cancer are well recognized by oncologists world over and at DHRC we get to see a fair number of them. This 45 years old, Nepalese lady presented to the Gynae Oncology clinic of DHRC with complaints of bleeding per vagina and severe pain in the left lower limb and lumbo-sacral region for the last 6 weeks. She was carrying reports from one of the prestigious medical institutes ofIndia, suggesting an adenocarcinoma of the cervix, FIGO clinical stage IIA. She had the following investigation reports.

1 USG (Abdomen and Pelvis) Cervix replaced by 4-5cms growth with a left adenexal mass and left parametrial thickening in its medial portion.

2 MRI (Abdomen and Pelvis) 4- 5 cms growth of cervix with a left adenexal mass.

3 CA 125 within normal limits (56 u/ml)

4 Guided FNAC of left adenexal mass- inconclusive for cancer.

5 Punch biopsy of cervical growth was reported as an adenocarcinoma.

Since, there was a long waiting period and the lady was having severe bleeding p/v episodes, her son, a medical student inBangladesh, brought her to our hospital for second opinion and further management. On her detailed clinical examination following findings were found –

1 Systemic examination showed a 5 cms X 6cms, irregular, hard lump with restricted mobility and suspicious in nature in the right breast. The left breast had features of fibroadenosis

2 Per speculum, per vaginum and per rectal examination revealed the cervix was replaced by a 4 cms by 5cms growth involving all fornices and upper 1cm of left vagina. A 3 cms hard irregular left adenexal mass was felt in the left fornix.

3 Rest of clinical examination was unremarkable.

Further investigation of the suspicious right breast lump

Since FNAC was reported as inconclusive for cancer and mammography showed highly suspicious findings with Bio-rad III/IV a trucut biopsy of the breast lump was done, this was reported as a metastatic carcinoma to the breast with no expression of estrogen or progesterone receptors (ER/PR negative). Probability of primary in the gastro intestinal tract was considered, PET-CT (whole body) was done, which showed a FDG avid lesions at multiple sites in stomach, ascending colon, left breast, cervix, lower uterus and left adenexa..

When reports were discussed with patient’s relatives, they further reported that the patient’s sister and brother had died of gastric carcinoma in past. They were counseled for genetic study of close family members.

After the final discussion in the Tumor Board at DHRC, with all investigation reports, it was decided that a palliative treatment plan, with haemostatic radiotherapy and palliative chemotherapy should be imparted rather than a Wertheim Hysterectomy as it was thought at provisional diagnosis of clinical stage IIA adenocarcinoma of cervix.


Metastases to the uterine cervix are rare. The commonest primary tumors metastasizing to cervix are primary endometrial carcinoma followed by breast. It is very rare to find a gastric carcinoma metastasizing to the cervix, with rarest of rare situation, where there is a strong suggestion that it has a distinct familial proclivity. Retrograde lymphatic spread is the probable mode of spread to the cervix from the stomach. Metastases to cervix are generally associated with Kruckenberg tumors of the ovaries, as presented in this case.

Cancer of cervix, is commonly a squamous cell carcinoma but recent trends show an increasing incidence of adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix and currently 10-25 percent of primary uterine cervical malignancies .

If Patients with cervical carcinoma on histopathology are reported as adenocarcinomas, one can not over-emphasize the importance of a thorough clinical examination and supportive investigations, to rule out the presence of a primary tumor at a distant site. In the present case, this appraisal included thorough systemic examination, sonography, MRI of the abdomen, pelvis, X-ray chest, mammography, relevant tumor markers, FNAC, trucut biopsy from adenexal mass and breast lump and PET -CT.

The detailed family history of cancer in blood relatives was a pointer in this direction although genetic studies could not be done in this patient. It most likely is a case of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGCs), which represents 1 to 3percent of all gastric cancers. About 53percent of these are associated with CDH1 gene mutation. These familial cancers demonstrate autosomal dominant inheritance and a high penetrance. The 5-year survival is just 20%, if the diagnosis is made after the patient is symptomatic.

Conclusion By careful examination, detailed investigations and planning, the inadvertent surgery could be avoided and correct prognostication was offered in this rare case of a Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer with metastatic adenocarcinoma to the cervix. The importance of metastatic work up and thorough clinical examination and history can not be overemphasized in any cancer patient before definitive treatment planning.